Depending on the author, there may be as few as three species (Petranka, 1998) or as many as thirteen different species (Conant and Collins, 1991). Recently hatched juvenile may have short, white gills. This is a relatively widespread species that is quite abundant where it occurs. Brooding females were observed in rock crevices in a southern Illinois cave during October and November. 1. Presumably, these eggs are typically laid underground, due to the low numbers of nests observed in the wild. Champaign, IL 61820. Northern Slimy's and other Plethodontid salamanders are neat when it comes to reproduction because, unlike many other amphibian species, they don't require standing water to lay their eggs. Email the Web Administrator with questions or comments. Type Locality: Not stated. Tail long and circular in cross-section. Amph. They are laid in spherical clusters of 16-33 and are often suspended from the ceilings of natural cavities. This salamander gets its name from a glue-like secretion it emits from glands in its skin as a … Marbled Salamander — LIFER 7 2. Northern Slimy Salamander eggs are whitish with a jelly surrounding when laid. Slimy salamanders will occasionally consume smaller salamanders, including individuals of their own species. Adults reach total lengths of 5-7 inches. Newly hatched Slimy Salamanders apparently do not emerge from their hidden retreats until the following spring. Slimy salamander hatchlings do not go through an aquatic larval stage. Grad. Reproduction: Slimy salamanders lay their eggs on land under logs or in underground cavities. Plethodon glutinosus (Northern Slimy Salamander) Geographic Distribution. Historical versus Current Distribution - The geographic distribution of northern dusky Salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) extends in the United States southwest from Maine, through New England, New York, and Pennsylvania to Virginia, then west to southern and eastern Ohio, southeastern Indiana, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina (Petranka, 1998). Plethodon glutinosus (Green, 1818) Northern Slimy Salamander. Herpetological Review 44:270. Adults of this species are medium-sized black salamanders with white speckling. 1(1):348-359. Subspecies: No subspecies currently recognized. Breeding of P. glutinosus takes place in the spring, and courtship consists of the males performing a sort of dance to attract the females' attention. The female picks up the spermatophore shortly thereafter. Northern Slimy Salamander eggs are whitish with a jelly surrounding when laid. Natural Resources Building Instead, the 13 to 34 eggs (average 16-17) are usually deposited in decaying logs or attached underneath rocks. The spring-laid eggs hatch around August. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia. Brit. Referring to the number of paravomerine and vomerine teeth. White dots are present throughout the dorsum, and they increase along the sides, where they often form wide white bands. Plethodon sequoyah Highton, 1989 Sequoyah Slimy Salamander. The female then guards the eggs until hatching. Original Description: Green, J. Mus., Batr. These eggs will usually hatch around October and young do not have an aquatic larval stage. Washington, 33: 131).  Most subspecies elevated to species by Highton et al., (1989,  Illinois Biological Monographs 57: 1-153). Females lay clutches of four to 12 eggs in a moist area, which she guards, often neglecting food for the period until they hatch. 1. website to learn about the northern slimy salamander. Spotted Dusky Salamander — LIFER 6 9. The female guards her clutch until hatching which takes about 3 months. The larval stage is completed within the egg, and hatching occurs 2-3 months after the eggs are deposited. It belongs to the larger P. glutinosus species complex, which contains many morphologically similar species across the eastern United States. Presumably, these eggs are typically laid underground, due to the low numbers of nests observed in the wild. It is suspected that they are sexually mature at 5 years of age and that the females only breed every other year. The Northern Slimy Salamander (Plethodon glutinosus) has no recognized subspecies. Oviparous (egg laying) Clutch Size: 4 to 12 eggs: Incubation Period: Around 3 months: Reproductive Age: 2 to 3 years of age: Average Lifespan: 5.5 years in captivity: IUCN Conservation Status: Least Concern Scientific Name: Plethodon glutinosus. 5 March 2016 - A few field pics from our first round of sampling in the Vermilion River Conservation Opportunity Area including the first Silvery Salamander of the year and a cluster of Wood Frog egg … Tiny hatchlings, which resemble adults in form and color, grow to become the largest completely terrestrial salamanders in Illinois. Relatively resilient to timber harvesting; however clear-cuts have a negative impact on populations. Minton, S. A. Jr. 2001. The northern slimy salamander is the only species present in our area. 607 East Peabody Drive Biol. Etymology: Plethodon – pletho (Greek) for crowd, multitude, fullness; odon (Greek) tooth; glutinosus – (Latin) viscous, sticky. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Similar Species: Ravine and Redback salamanders. The black dorsal color fades to gray on the tail. This makes them different from other amphibians because they skip the larval stage. Species Status: Common. Eastern Newt 2 5. Similar Species: Blue-spotted salamander. 2009; Mitchell & Gibbons 2010). Southern Two-lined Salamander 2 10. Similar Species: Blue-spotted Salamander, Jefferson Salamander, Silvery Salamander, and Small-mouthed Salamander are similar overall, but these species lack nasolabial grooves. See Key to Illinois Salamanders for help with identification. Petranka, J. W. 1998. Copious, adhesive skin secretions provide protection from predators. Copious, adhesive skin secretions provide protection from predators. Northern Slimy Salamander: Four-toed Salamander: Spring Salamander: Midland Mud Salamander: Northern Red Salamander: Green Salamander: Two-lined Salamander: Longtail Salamander: ... Eggs are attached singly to the undersides of rocks or other structures in concealed locations and may be submerged underwater. Habitat: Heavy forested areas, open shale-covered embankments and hillsides adjacent to dense forest. This species belongs to a complex of similar species that is found throughout eastern North America. Conant, R. and J. T . After hatching from eggs, Slimy Salamanders emerge as small salamanders. A protective coating on their eggs inhibits oxygen diffusion but a photosynthetic algae lives in the egg and provides the developing salamander oxygen via photosynthesis. Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Northern Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus Turkey Run, Parke Co., Indiana Collected by W.L. Breeding is probably most common in the fall in Indiana, though some individuals may breed in the spring. Their range extends further north on the western border of the state where they inhabit deep, rocky gorges. Tiny hatchlings, which resemble adults in form and color, grow to become the largest completely terrestrial salamanders in Illinois. Sequoyah slimy salamanders (Plethodon sequoyah) were previously considered a form of Rich Mountain salamanders (P.ouachitae; Dundee, 1947; Pope and Pope, 1951) or northern slimy salamanders (P.glutinosus; Blair and Lindsay, 1965). Scientific Name: Plethodon glutinosus Size: 4-8 inches (10.16-20.32 cm) in length Status: Abundant . They breed annually, depositing about 6-36 eggs under logs or dirt in the summer or early fall. It is quick and slimy. Original Name: Salamandra glutinosa Green, 1818. They prefer to lay their egg clutches in moist areas but on land such as under rotting logs, large rocks, in caves, etc. The young hatch directly into miniature adults. They often seek shelter under a variety of cover including bark, logs, and rocks. Brodman, R. 2003. It is nocturnal. Description: Medium-sized (up to 17 cm TL) salamander with black or bluish black back and uniform gray-black belly, sometimes with light flecks. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 112:43-54. Average total lengths of hatchlings in Indiana are about 0.5-1 inch long. They are rarely discovered in the open during daylight hours. Maturity is not reached for two to three years. Long-tailed Salamander 1 6. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY. Northern Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus Background The northern slimy salamander is a medium-large sized member of the “lungless” salamander family (Plethodontidae). Northern Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus Turkey Run, Parke Co., Indiana Collected by W.L. Eggs hatch in late summer and autumn. Species Status: Common. © 2018–2020 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Ventral coloration is black, except under the tail and feet, where it is gray. White spotted slimy salamanders lay six to thirty six eggs in an underground retreat such as underneath or within a log, or in a moist crevasse during late spring. Spotted Salamander embryos are host to one of the only known occurrences of animal-microbe symbiosis . Historical versus Current Distribution. They lay between 30 and 130 eggs, which later hatch in early winter. Breeding of Northern Slimy Salamanders occurs on land, where the male drops a spermatophore after a series of courtship behaviors. Females deposit and brood clusters of 10-20 large white eggs in damp rotten logs, burrows, or rock crevices. 1818. Status: Most commonly encountered woodland salamander in southern half of state. Food: Northern Slimy Salamanders feed on terrestrial invertebrates. The young hatch in around three months, after which they grow steadily.