. His father was a merchant who travelled often to Athens, and Zeno naturally took up his fathers profession. Virtue flows naturally from following the cosmos, vice from deviating. Zeno of Citium once sent all of his belongings on a ship that shipwrecked shortly after sailing. A more critical summary of Stoic theory and teachings is in Eduard Zeller, Outlines of the History of Greek Philosophy, revised by Wilhelm Nestle and translated by L. R. Palmer (1955). In his most famous and controversial work, the Republic, Zeno chastised society and other philosophies for needing to set up binding institutions such as government, law, and religion. philosophy, logic, physics. For Zeno and the Stoics, there is no difference between the One and the Demiurge, as Heraclitus’ fire is not only the cosmos but the craftsman, thinking itself, forming itself and knowing itself as all things. Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, "Zēnōn ho Kitieŭs") (334 BC - 262 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Citium (_el. Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE) founded Stoicism, an ancient philosophy of life. Later Stoics saw themselves as the inheritors of the Cynical tradition. These two elements, according to the Stoics, are less heavy than earth and water; and for that reason they tend to stay outside the central spheres composed of the heavy elements. (Göttingen, 1959). Zeno & Stoicism Quotes. Zeno of Citium (c. 334 - 262 B.C.) was the founder of Stoicism. Ignorance of the truth leads to vain hopes and expectations, and the ignorant man is condemned to a life of blindness. Continue on a sailing voyage to Athens via Rhodes. However, he killed himself when he was 72 years old. It was a picture of the cosmos as a single material continuum. Zeno the son of Mnaseas, was born in the Cypriot town of … Stoic ethics and physics are thus in full accord with one another: the good life for man is to be an assenting part of the cosmos, “to live in accordance with nature.”. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Zeno of Citium (334 - 262 B.C.) Hobbes l…, CHRYSIPPUS The unified and consistent world picture worked out by Zeno, which was in fact a remarkable achievement, lost its clear outlines and merged with the general amalgam of Aristotelianism, Neoplatonism, and Christianity that dominatedn the intellectual centers of late antiquity. This line of thinking allowed Zeno to promote many "radical" ideas for his time period such as equality between the sexes, homosexuality, and shared responsibility for successes and failures. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. If many people crowded around him asking for answers, he would begin charging them larger and larger sums until they left him alone. was the founder of Stoicism. Diogenes Laertius: Life of Zeno of Citium (7.1-37), translated by C.D.Yonge. Zeno and Zeno Later on Zeno of Citium, in accordance with Universal Reason, ate all of Zeno of Elea's leftovers, because Zeno of Elea doesn't deserve them after the mess he left. In Indian thought, there is a similar distinction between pleasure one gets from particular desired things and joy one gets from simply being, from being tranquil beyond desire. Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. He found himself in Athens after experiencing a shipwreck where he found a library he came upon some of the writings of Socrates. STRATO OF LAMPSACUS Zeno was the son of a merchant and a student of Crates of Thebes. thinker, is known exclusively for propounding a number of ingenious paradoxes. He went to Athens about 312 bce and attended lectures by the Cynic philosophers Crates of Thebes and Stilpon of Megara, in addition to lectures at the Academy. Through reason man may come to an understanding and acceptance of the way things are and may willingly comply with Nature. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium, "Zeno of Citium Fate is the endless chain of causation, whereby things are; the reason or formula by which the world goes on. Also like Heraclitus, the Stoics believed that the soul is made of fire, and that the elements undergo cycles of transformation and destruction, each dying to give birth to the next. was a Greek philosopher of the Hellenistic period, active in Athens from about 300 B.C. Zeno of Citium (333 – 264 BC) was the Greek founder of Stoic philosophy. The whole cosmos is a field wihtin which various motions occur, and within it one field can be distinguished from another according to the motions that occur there. In the fifth century B.C.E., Zeno of Elea offered arguments that led to conclusions contradicting what we all know from our physical experience—that runners run, that arrows fly, and that there are many different things in the world. Zeno of Citium was born in Citium on the island of Cyprus in 334 B.C. World Encyclopedia. (October 16, 2020). Like Diogenes, Zeno challenged conventions, holding that 'men and women should wear the same clothes and keep no part of the body completely covered' (D. L. VII.33); and his follower Chrysippus (c. 280—207 BC) claimed 'that sexual intercourse with mothers or daughters or sisters, This is a trip to find yourself and learn about ancient history along the way! The person who knows and accepts they are going to get soaked gets just as wet, but walks without fear and concern. Unlike Epicurus, Zeno argued that pleasure is dangerous, a negative force that impeded the achievement of tranquility. The third leader of the Stoic school of philosophy in At…, Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen, Zentralstelle der Fuersorge Fuer Kriegsfluechtlinge, Zentralwohlfahrtstelle der Deutschen Juden, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/culture-magazines/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium, Early Greek Matter Theories: The Pre-Socratics to the Stoics. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Unfortunately, Laertius's writing is one of the few records that scholars have of Zeno and his own writings. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium, ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Zeno of Citium The basic entities of Stoic philosophy are not substances but motions or events. The Stoic system, with its emphasis on fortitude and discipline, appealed to the Romans and became the most widely accepted Greek philosophy among the Roman ruling classes. If one lived according to the instinct of impulse and passion, one was no more than an animal; if one lived in accordance with universal reason, one … Zeno established his own school about 300 b.c., perhaps in deliberate opposition to the school of Epicurs, which had recently been founded. His theory of the Universal Reason was that performing the greatest good was our purpose in life. Zeno, the founder of Stoicism himself experienced one and in a surprising twist, is what put him on the path to philosophy. He is also said, “It is better to trip with the feet than with the tongue”. A Mayan wisdom proverb similarly reads, “You are my other self“. The physical system, however, soon became contaminated with elements of Platonism and Aristotelianism; Stoic ideas occur frequently but rather unsystematically in the work of Galen, the Neoplatonists, and the Peripatetic commentators. Zeno was the son of a merchant and a student of Crates of Thebes, the most famous Cynic living at that time in Greece. "Zeno of Citium Encyclopedia.com. When Zeno began to run away embarrassed, Crates called out, “Why are you running, little Phoenician? Unlike the Pyrrhonians and the Epicureans, who point to the suffering of the world as the problem of evil, Zeno and the Stoics believed that the cosmos is rational and good, preserving what is good and dissolving what is bad, much like the Pythagorean forking Y. While Zeno did not say that the institution of slavery should be abolished, he taught that the wise consider slaves to be equal to themselves, even if each has a different lot in life to accept with stoic resolution. Born in Cyprus, some time during the later half of the fourth century BC. Zeno, like many other philosophy teachers at the time, taught in public locations that were accessible to any person who might wander by. Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Hellenistic period. There is a recent monograph on Zeno, by Andreas Graeser, Zenon von Kition (Berlin, 1975). I mean come on. He also was known to follow the teachings of Crates the Cynic, a well-known teacher of Cynicism. He is considered the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. The dramatic occasion of Platos dialogue, Parmenides, is a visit to Athens by the eminent philosopher Parmenides and Zeno, his younger associate, to attend the festival of the Great Panathenaea. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. ." WHO WAS ZENO The Zeno foundation is named after the Greek philosopher Zeno From Citium, in Cyprus. Zeno the son of Mnaseas, was born in the Cypriot town of Citium and may have been part Semitic. Named for his teaching platform, the Painted Porch ("stoa" is Greek for "porch"), his teachings were the beginning of Stoicism. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Recall that Diogenes, the original Cynic, used to walk in snow and roll in hot sand such that he would not suffer from heat or cold. In this "Utopian" view of the world, there is no need for any sort of government, economic system, nor institutions such as religion. The cosmos works things out in the long run, even if they are difficult in a given situation, and so the wise individual must bear their fate without discomfort or fear, just as the Cynics such as Crates practiced by exposing themselves to the elements. After wandering into a bookstore (presumably after catching his breath and allowing his clothes to dry, though it is amusing to imagine him walking straight out of the ocean, through the gates of Athens and into the bookstore, a soggy squeak with each footstep), he found works about Socrates and asked the shop owner where he could find such a teacher. The Stoics lacked a language with which this idea could be expressed coherently, however, and their retention of expressions appropriate to a metaphysics of “substance” led to many paradoxes. In Ethics, Zeno taught that one should live a simple life, with one’s reason in accord with the Logos of the cosmos (another borrowing from Heraclitus). Stoicism was founded by Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE), a Phoenician living in the capital of ancient Cyprus, today the city of Larnaca on the South coast of the island. Through an elaborate process of separation, God willed Himself apart from corporeality and caused the chain of events which we know as the history of the universe. His education, however, was thoroughly Greek, and he went to Athens about 313 B.C., where he attended the lectures of various philosophers, including Crates the Cynic, Stilpo, Xenocrates, and Polemo. Zeno's successors as leaders of the Stoa were Cleanthes, Chrysippus, Zeno of Tarsus, Diogenes the Babylonian, Panaetius of Rhodes, Posidonius, and Hecaton. This process will repeat itself infinitely and history will repeat itself exactly an endless number of times. There is an ancient life of Zeno and other Stoics in Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, VII, text and trans. Zeno taught his stages of argument via logic by using his hand as a metaphor. – Zeno of Citium Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, by Diogenes Laertius. Study philosophy by following his journey through Greece beginning in Larnaca, sailing the Greek Islands, and culminating in a … Encyclopedia.com. d. Athens, c. 205 BCE), theory of matter, logic, cosmology, psychology, Stoicism. Zeno of Citium, 334 – 262 BCE, was the founder of Stoicism, an influential school of Hellenistic philosophy, in Athens, Greece. Like Diogenes, Stoics also believed in cosmopolitanism, that all people of the world are equals. Very little is known of Strato’s life. An account of the Aristotelian tradition would cover, without any interruption, the whole of the intellectual hist…, (b. Béthune, France, ca. Indeed the universe was full of love for Zeno. Given that Socrates was a little past seventy when executed by the Athenians in 399 B.C.E., this description suggests that Zeno wa… It is unsurprising that he would develop a philosophy that so mirrored his personality. Like Epicureanism, Stoicism was open to slaves, such as Epictetus, who we will discuss soon. . Study philosophy and tour the islands of Greece. A. Virtue was defined as knowledge and vice as ignorance. . The nature of the tension thus set up determines the properties possessed by the region in question. Periodically the cosmos loses all its differentiation and is wholly consumed by and assimilated to the divine fiery pneuma After this ἐκπύρωσις, the cosmos is formed again. The owner pointed to the most famous Cynic in Athens, Crates of Thebes, who happened to be passing by, and said, “Follow that man”. Originally a Phoenician (Cyprus) merchant, he lived most of his life in mainland Greece after being shipwrecked off the coast of Attica. The Stoics exploited the argument from design to the full, and found evidences of divine craftsmanship everywhere in nature. Closing his hand into a fist, Zeno would say, “Comprehension is like this”, and then clasping his fist in his other hand, he would say, “Knowledge is like this”. Greek and Roman writers in imperial times came to identify the good Roman emperors, such as Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, with the Stoic king, and the evil emperors, such as Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, with the depraved tyrant. The simple life he favoured. ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Zeno of Citium "The goal of life is living in agreement with all nature." No courts or temples but wine and figs; no money, just love. 1358) According to Diogenes, Zeno began his professional life as a merchant, not as a philosopher. Encyclopedia.com. It is unsurprising that he would develop a philosophy that so mirrored his personality. Encyclopedia.com. 2001. ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Zeno of Citium perceived as one who enjoyed simple but expensive things. Originally a Phoenician (Cyprus) merchant, he lived most of his life in mainland Greece after being shipwrecked off the coast of Attica. Zeno of Citium (c. 335 – 262 B.C) was a Greek philosopher active in Athens from about 300 B.C. His teachings had a profound influence throughout the ancient world and in important respects helped pave the way for Christianity. Encyclopedia.com. This board consists of quotations of Zeno, hopefully to inspire one toward reason, and therefore toward nature and lasting happiness. Paradoxically, freedom is obtained by submitting to to fate, freedom arising from accepting what must be. Greek Philosophy – Zeno of Citium. Zeno preached a morality that could claim to be an interpretation of the message of Socrates. With the demise of the city-states and the concomitant failure of the older and simpler religious views to satisfy men's new spiritual needs in a time of changing values, Zeno's philosophical teachings imparted a sense of worth and dignity to the lives of great numbers of men. His teachings had a profound influence throughout the ancient world and in important respects helped pave the way for Christianity. Since the cosmos is a single continuous field, motions in one part of it may affect those in any other part: the Stoics used the term “sympathy” for this feature. Zeno of Citium: translation. It was well known that Zeno's favorite place to teach was in front of the "Stoa Poikile" (Painted Stoa), a central colonnade on the north side of the agora in Athens. Encyclopedia.com. Zeno of Citium (/ ˈ z iː n oʊ /; Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher of Phoenician origin from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus.Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. World Encyclopedia. Like Plato and Aristotle, Zeno and later Stoics divided philosophy into three branches: Physics, Logic and Ethics. When he heard about the wreck, he simply said: “Fortune wants me to have more freedom to philosophize.” This quote is a masterful example of Stoic philosophy. The Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium (335-263 B.C.) S. Sambursky, Physics of the Stoics (London, 1959), translates selected texts into English and gives a comprehensive account of the cosmology, not altogether free from anachronism. Zeno of Citium (c. 336 265 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and the founder of the Stoic School of philosophy, born in the Phonecian-Greek city of Citium on Cyprus in the same year that Alexander the Great ascended to the throne of Macedonia. In particular, since any region of the universe, in their theory, may contain motions of many different kinds; and since it is these motions that produce identifable characters or “bodies,” they had to say that many bodies could coexist in the same region. They are also characterized as the active elements: together they make up pneunza, which permeates the whole cosmos and sets up a tension (τόνος) in it. He is considered the founder of the Stoicism school of philosophy (which became the dominant philosophy of the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and an influence on early Christianity ). The head-ship of the school passed first to Cleanthes of Assos,and the to Chrysippus of Soli: the individual contributions of the three to the school’s doctrine are hard to disentangle, in the absence of any complete writings, and this article does not attempt the task. Several scholars have pointed out that this sounds very much like Chinese Daoism. Zeno of Citium, born in 334 BCE, was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. Zeno of Citium, 334 – 262 BCE, was the founder of Stoicism, an influential school of Hellenistic philosophy, in Athens, Greece. . Greek philosopher & founder of Stoic school. Epicurus could agree with this, as could Aristotle, who would see each negative term as an excess or lack, and each positive term as a practice of moderation. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Nothing terrible has happened to you!”, attempting to teach the young Zeno that the things and responsibilities we bear can suddenly be destroyed, and the judgements of others are not to be feared. ." Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens. By the time Zeno began his own lecturing around 300 b.c.e., he had begun to combine these two schools of thought into a new philosophy. Zeno's philosophical core beliefs grew out of the idea of corruption and rationalism. Further Reading on Zeno of Citium. ." The center toward which matter tends to move is its own center, the center of the cosmic body, where as in Aristotle’s system it is the center of the universe; second, all matter in the Stoic system, including the two light, centrifugal elements of the Aristotelian cosmology, air and fire, tends toward the center. The wisdom that constitutes virtue includes an understanding of natureindeed, that is its most important component, since the wise man’s goal is “to live in accordance with nature.” A particular physics, a particular interpretation of the physical universe and man’s place in it, is an essential part of Stoicism, just as the atomic world picture was an essential part of the rival Epicurean doctrine. Zeno of Citium was known as a quiet man who preferred living modestly. Quotations from Zeno of Citium: sources - Web Search, WikiQuotes, Nearly all of Zeno of Citium's first hand writings are apparently … (b. Lampsacus, Mysia; d. Athens, 271/268 b.c.) Zeno of Elea, 5th c. B.C.E. Man, in Zeno's view, had the key to true happiness within himself. Later Stoics argued that it is proper to free slaves upon one’s death. "Zeno of Citium ( Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher of Phoenician origin from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus. Zeno of Citium was the founder of the Stoic School of philosophy. Zeno considered assent, or agreement, to be a free act, such that we can choose whether or not to agree with our perceptions. To Zeno, life was not about seizing the most riches and dying in a tomb made of gold. Through his own … Who Was Zeno Read More » . However, before considering these Stoics of the later period, the only period from which we have surviving Stoic texts, we must consider the early Stoic systematizer Chrysippus, whose name sounds a bit like ‘kissy-puss’. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Suicide was very common among the philosophers of his time. Greek For a chronological analysis of this list of major philosophers, see the section By Historical Period . Encyclopedia.com. The History of Philosophy, Logic and the Mind with Eric Gerlach. Thomas Hobbes, often called the father of modern analytic philosophy, was born in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England. Stretching out his hand, palm open as if to receive, he would say, “Perception is like this”. Nov 22, 2016 - Zeno of Citium (c. 334 – c. 262 BCE) was a Greek thinker from Citium, Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent. Zeno’s father was a merchant called Mnaseas, perhaps a Greek version of the Phoenician Manasse or Menahem; Zeno is commonly referred to as “the Phoneician” by ancient writers. Zeno of Citium (334-262 BC). According to Diogenes, Zeno described the three parts of philosophy as the physical, the ethical, and the logical, and that these parts should be blended rather than separated. The arguments were paradoxes for the ancient Greek philosophers. According to Zeno and the Stoic conception of Physics, the cosmos is a living, rational god. Zeno of Citium - Founder of Stoicism. Instead the rational thinking human would only do what is best not only for himself or herself, but for the society at large. Zeno was also known for speaking briefly, and chastising others who spoke at length without getting to the point. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium. The elements are not chemically differentiated but are defined by the tension set up by these motions. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium. The main emphasis of Stoic teaching was moral. ." George E. Karamanolis, "Zeno of Citium," in Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition. Zeno was, himself, a merchant until the age of 42, when he started the Stoic school of philosophy. Zeno’s lectures drew many followers, including rich patrons and kings. He flourished between 300 and 260 BC. At some specific moment in the future, He will take corporeality back unto Himself in a mighty conflagration. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium, "Zeno of Citium When asked what a friend is, Zeno replied, “Another I”. Ed. We still use the word ‘Stoic’ to mean straight-faced, showing little emotion even in difficulty. Recall that Phoenicia was at the West end of the silk road, and traded many goods including spices from India and silks of China to the Greeks and Egyptians. Additionally, Stoics preached egalitarianism, that all are equal. As with many other ancient Greek philosophers, only fragments of Zeno’s many works come down to us through quotations in the texts of other ancient Greek authors, particularly those of the later Stoics Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. The Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium (335-263 B.C.) In the Hagakure (In the Shadow of the Leaves) of Yamamoto Tsunetomo, one of the central sources of Japanese Samurai culture, he says there is something to be learned in a rainstorm that applies to everything in life. Zeno of Citium, born in 334 BCE, was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. ." He was also ." Encyclopedia.com. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. An excellent introduction to Zeno and the Stoic school is in Moses Hadas, ed., Essential Works of Stoicism (1961). Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium. Stoicism is a school of philosophy founded (308 BCE) in Athens by Zeno of Citium … Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. "Zeno of Citium These clear the mind of problematic thoughts and attachments, allowing the mind to develop and achieve tranquility. (1588–1679) Its logic, correspondingly, is a logic of properties of substances. Zeno’s Paradoxes. The standard collection of fragments is J.von Arnim, Stoicorum veterun fragmenta, 4 vols (Leipzig, 1905-1924). In this society, members rely completely on rational thinking as a way of life. . He turned to Socratic philosophy, and gradually evolved the unified metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics that make up the… The Stoic world picture was the lineal descendant of Plato’s Timaeus and Aristotle’s De caelo, with some features of the Platonic-Aristotelian cosmology exaggerated or changed, perhaps in conscious opposition to Epicurus. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Mar 8, 2020 - Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE) founded Stoicism, an ancient philosophy of life. (October 16, 2020). The basic entities of Stoic philosophy are not substances but motions or events. Zeno was, himself, a merchant until the age of 42, … Zeno was born c. 334 BC, in Citium in Cyprus. Although Jean Buridan was the most distinguished and influenti…, Strato of Lampsacus Zeno of Citium (c. 336 – 265 BCE) was the founder of the Stoic School of philosophy in Athens, which taught that the Logos (Universal Reason) was the greatest good in life and living in accordance with reason was the meaning of life. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Andrew Erskine, The Hellenistic Stoa: Political Thought and Action (New York: Cornell University Press, 1990). Zeno’s father was a merchant called Mnaseas, perhaps a Greek version of the Phoenician Manasse or Menahem; Zeno is commonly referred to as “the Phoneician” by ancient writers. The name derives from the porch (stoa poikilê) in the Agora at Athens decorated with mural paintings, where the members of the school congregated, and their lectures were held. by R. D. Hicks in the Loeb Classical Library (London, 1953). All that matters is that we accept this world as it is and change our own perception to find peace. Zeno's philosophical system embraced physics, logic, and ethics. Zeno of Citium (c. 335 – 262 B.C) was a Greek philosopher active in Athens from about 300 B.C. This board consists of quotations of Zeno, hopefully to inspire one toward reason, and therefore toward nature and lasting happiness. An excellent introduction to Zeno and the Stoic school is in Moses Hadas, ed., Essential Works of Stoicism (1961).